Smoking Cessation Research
Kerr, C.M., Lowe, P.B. & Spielholz, N.I. (2008). Low Level Laser For The Stimulation Of Acupoints For Smoking Cessation: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Randomised Trial And Semi-Structured Interviews. Journal of Chinese Medicine 86: 46-51. Abstract: Aim: to determine whether the application of laser acupoint stimulation to previously reported effective ear and body acupuncture points was successful in reducing the physical symptoms of withdrawal, so promoting a complete cessation of smoking. Design: The method used was that of a double blind, randomised controlled trial and semi-structured interviews. Adult volunteers (n=415) were recruited following a television appeal. After initial screening and application of inclusion/exclusion criteria the volunteers (n=387) were randomly allocated to either of the treatment groups A or B or C. Intervention: Three laser therapy treatments on days 1, 3 and 7 of the programme and one sham treatment on day 14 (Group A) or 4 laser treatments carried out on days 1, 3, 7 and 14 (Group B) or Group C with four sham treatments on days 1, 3, 7 and 14. Sham treatments used an inactive probe identical in appearance to active probe. Findings: Groups A and Group B participants achieved a higher rate of non smoking than Group C. Of the two groups, four treatments (Group B) was more effective than thethree treatments (Group A). The differences in the non smoking behaviors of all three groups were statistically significant. Subjective data reported a lessening of withdrawal symptoms after laser treatment. Conclusions: Laser acupoint stimulation can assist in smoking cessation by reducing the physical symptoms of withdrawal.
Marovino, T.A. Laser Auriculotherapy as part of the Nicotine Detoxification Process: Evaluation of 1280 Subjects and Theoretical Considerations of a Developing Model (1994). American Journal of Acupuncture 22 (2) 129-135.
Tan, C.H., Sin, Y.M. & Huang, X.G.(1987). The Use of Laser on Acupuncture Points for Smoking Cessation. American Journal of Acupuncture, 15 (2) 137-141.
Laakso L, Cramond T, Richardson C & Galligan JP (1994). Plasma ACTH and β-Endorphin Levels in Response to Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) for Myofascial Trigger Points. Laser Therapy 6: 133-142.
Litscher G, Wand L, Schikora D, Rachbauer D, Schwarz G, Schopfer A, Ropele S, Huber E (2004). Biological Effects of Painless Laser Needle Acupuncture. Medical Acupuncture Journal, 16 (1): 24-29.
Sheridan A (2008). Anna Sheridan Laser Therapy Centre Project Evaluation 1999-2000. Pre-publication clinical evidence summary.
Sheridan A (2008). Anna Sheridan Laser Therapy Centre Project Evaluation 2002-2005. Pre-publication clinical evidence summary.
Harrison A (1993). Low Level Laser Therapy: Double Blind Study to Assess Effectiveness for Stopping Smoking. Unpublished.
Laser therapy has been shown to independently increase endorphin release (Laakso et al 1994 above), but when used to stimulate acupuncture points for smoking cessation, whether the effects of the lasering are due totally to the acupuncture point stimulation or whether there are additional systemic photobiological effects delivered by the laser treatment which might be improving treatment effectiveness, is not yet proven. However, it is likely that the acupuncture effects represent the main part of the beneficial effect. The wealth of general acupuncture research into smoking cessation is therefore relevant and a selection of this follows below:
Steiner RP, Hay DL, Davis AW (1982). Acupuncture therapy for the treatment of tobacco smoking addiction. AM J Chin Med, 19:107-121
Swartz J (1998) Evaluation of acupuncture as a treatment for smoking. American Journal
Acupuncture, 16 (2): 135 – 142.
Fuller JA (1982). Smoking withdrawal and acupuncture. Medical Journal Australia, 1: 28-29.
Gilbey V. & Neumann B. (1977). Auricular acupuncture for smoking withdrawal. American Journal of Acupuncture, 5: 239-247.
Lacroix JC. & Besancon F. Le sevrage du tabac. Efficacité de l’acupuncture dans un
comparatif. Ann Med Intern (Paris) 1977; 128: 405-408.
Parker LN. & Mok MS.(1977). The use of laser on acupuncture for smoking withdrawal. American Journal of Acupuncture, 3: 363-366.
Tan CH. & Haung XG (1987). The use of laser on acupuncture points for smoking cessation. American Journal of Acupuncture, 13(2): 137-141.
Lagrue G. Poupy JL. Grillot A. Ansquer JC (1980). Acupuncture anti-tabagique. La Nouvelle Presse Médicale, 9: 966.
Lamontagne Y. Lawrence A. Gagnon MA (1980). Acupuncture for smokers: lack of long-term effect in a controlled study. Canadian Medical Journal, 5: 787-790.
Martin GP. Waite PM (1981). The efficacy of acupuncture as an aid to stopping smoking. New Zealand Medical Journal, 93: 421-423.